Friday, March 20, 2020
Judaism Doctrines Introduction Judaism is one of the most common, old, and strong religions that have existed since time memorial with a very strong and unwavering monotheism belief.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Judaism Doctrines specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prior to its current state of integrating a Jewish state and a religion, in the past Judaism was only a religious practice of the Hebrews. Although it is a distinct religion and other religions have their own set of doctrines, which they follow, influences of Judaism on other religions are many. This is because, although religions such as Christianity and Islam have their own doctrines, which its believers follow strictly, they have many concepts borrowed from Judaism, it being one of the primary symbols of human civilization. Globally, there exist more than fourteen million Jewish believers, and approximately 3.5 billion others who belong to other religions that apply bor rowed Judaism doctrines. To the Jewish, strict adherence to ritual laws is one of the doctrines that any Jewish believer must respect. Most Jewish believers never believe is the rigid religious beliefs, because most of them hold very liberal views towards spiritual viewpoints (Bamberger, 2010, p.1). As research studies on the origins of Judaism show, this religion has existed since the time Abraham was alive; one of the most respect biblical figures, for Jews consider him one of their greatest ancestors. According to the Jewish believers, Judaism is a symbolic representation of God in their midst, for it represents the covenantal agreement between God and the children of Israel. Historically, Judaism is one of the religious groups that have endured extreme suffering and persecutions, although this has never been an impediment to its spreading. Their suffering goes back to the times of the Pharaoh in Egypt, travelling through the desert and their eventual receiving of the Ten Comman dments and the Promised Land. Although the Jewish people believe in the commandments, their views on what God gave Moses and the extent of including modern religious concepts in their practices varies; hence the current splitting of the early Jewish religion into the present Judaism groups namely the Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative Judaism. Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All this groups have differing Judaism beliefs, which guide their religious practices, although they al believe in the existence of one God (Bamberger, 2010, p.1). Comparison between Christianity and Judaism Although the two biggest world religions namely Christianity and Islam have distinctive doctrines, which their believers must adhere to, these regions have numerous Judaism borrowed concepts. It is important to note that, although the Islam and BahaÃ¢â¬â¢i religions use some Judaism borr owed concepts, the level of borrowing is not much as Christianity has done. Judaism and Christianity share very many theological and historical facts for example, the existence of Jesus and his twelve followers. In addition, according to biblical teachings JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s entire family lineage was of the Jewish origin, hence his upbringing among the Jews. This is a fact both Christians and Jews believe hence, clearly showing the resemblance between this to religious groups in beliefs and systems of operation. Both the Christians and the Jewish depend on the bible for spiritual nourishment, a fact that is evident in the Christians and JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ practice of referring to their bibles for guidance and spiritual providence. Further, theologically all the writers of the Old Testament; a section of the bible read by both Christians and the Jews,were of the Jewish origin hence, proving that although this two religions differ in doctrines, they must be sharing very many concepts (British Broadcasting Corporation: BBC, 2009, p.1) . Although Christians and Jews are both monotheistic holding the ideas that only one God exists; Jesus existed; human beings are products of God, and God will come to take his faithful ones (although some Judaism groups do not believe in the second coming of God), many variations exist in ways which these religions interpret biblical and other spiritual books. In addition, although they show some form of conceptual co-existence and interdependence, they are contending religions, for each believes that, its teachings emphasizes Godly doctrines. For example, the Jewish dispute the notion held by Christians that God Manifests himself in three forms namely God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. According to the Jewish, this trinity idea is inconceivable; hence, the Christian practice of emphasizing the Trinity of God goes against provisions of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s holy books. Another Christian concept that faces much antagonism from the Jews is the id ea of the origin sin. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Judaism Doctrines specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Judaism, the original sin concept held by Christians lack a basis of explanation hence, the varying atonement modes adopted by Jews and Christians. On the other hand, Judaism never accepts the concept of the communion ceremonies, because to the Jewish, this is a form of worshiping idols (Rich, 2001, p.1). As theological research studies show, almost all doctrines that govern Christianity are Jewish-borrowed, although with new definitions and interpretations. According to Christianity, acceptance of a Jewish believer to follow Christian doctrines is not a religious transfer, but rather it is acceptance to be a complete child of God. This is different when it comes to Judaism, because for one to qualify to be Jewish, new converts have to abandon their early beliefs, vow to respect, and adhere to Jewi sh principles and church doctrines. Therefore, to some extent accepting the Jewish doctrines is like being reborn again with a new identity and affiliation, a case that is different in Christianity. Another primary difference between these religions is the personhood of Jesus Christ. According to Christianity, the primary reason why Jesus came to earth was to save humankind from perishing in the final fire; a fact that authors of the Old Testament had prophesied was to happen. In addition, according to Christian doctrines, Jesus is the only Messiah; hence, through him the world should receive eternal salvation. Although Judaism accepts the belief that Jesus was the son of God, it opposes the idea that he is the Messiah of the world hence, its belief that Jesus might be a prophet of God blessed with good and Godly teachings. In addition, according to Christianity, because of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercies and in the endeavor to save humankind, God transformed JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s Godliness, and m ade Jesus a human being through making his mother conceive through the Holy Spirit. Jewish doctrines greatly oppose this idea, by arguing that, Jesus was and will never be Godly, and although God wanted to save humankind, such a sacrifice was not essential (Herberg, 2007, pp. 7-21). Because the New Testament carries primarily teachings of Jesus, which the Jewish do not value very much, the Tanakh (the Jewish Bible) does not have the New Testament. Unlike the Tanakh, the Christian bible has both testaments, which are very crucial in a ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual endeavors. The Tanakh has three main sections namely the Torah, Ketuvim, and the NeviÃ¢â¬â¢im. According to the Jewish (although not all), there exist two forms of the Torah (written and oral) for spiritual nourishment. Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Christians only the written Torah exists, which Christians accept as a religious book, although they use a Koine Greek Septuagint decoded version of Torah. On the other hand, although this two groups share some biblical concepts of the Torah, the naming system they use in naming constituent books in their bibles vary. That is, unlike Jews who named constituent books in their bible using the traditional Jewish system, Christians have named the constituent books in their bible using names that resemble those used by the creators of the Septuagint (Meyer, 1995, pp. 7-19). In addition to the personhood of Jesus and books that these two groups use, although cultures within which these two religions thrive vary, the effect of the Jewish culture on Judaism is great. For example, unlike Judaism that permanently prohibits the consumption on certain foods, for example, pig and meat products and that all individuals must adhere to Kashrut laws in preserving their foods, Christia n doctrines never specify any preservation method. In addition, although the Christian bible specifies certain animal products that Christians must not consume, it is not very rigid hence, giving Christians the flexibility of choosing foods to consume (BBC, 2009, p.1). As concerns church rituals, as a respect to the existence of humankind, the Jewish incorporate their traditional practices in church activities, for example, when dedicating newborn babies to God and during marriage ceremonies. Therefore, largely the Jewish traditional practice plays an important role in church, a fact that is contrary in Christians, because traditional rituals are distinct components of a Christian society (Bamberger, 2010, p.1). Conclusion In conclusion, although Christians and the Jewish have many antagonizing ideas, these religions share very many concepts. For example, although these religions give their churches and leaders different names, for example, in Judaism Synagogue or Schul, led by a Re bbe or Rabbi, and a church or chapel in Christianity led by a priest, minister, and other Christian leaders, both religions emphasize one concept, the salvation of mankind from sin. In addition to their common goal, these two religions share a common heritage, although their levels of accepting religious concepts vary. Common variations among these religions occur in the personification of Jesus, the nature of God, and some religious practices for example, eating of the sacrament as a representation of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s body and drinking of wine as JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s blood. Reference List Bamberger, B. J. (2010). Judaism general information. Retrieved from http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/judaism.htm British Broadcasting Corporation: (2009). Religion: Judaism. BBC. Retrieved from bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/ Herberg, W. Judaism and the Modern man-an interpretation of the Jewish religion. Woodstock: Jewish Lights publishing. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=i5hdOr0XJ b8Cdq=judaismprintsec=frontcoversource=inhl=enei=u-cpTL3BFdehsQbXhZmhAgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=23ved=0CIcBEOgBMBY#v=onepageqf=false Meyer, M, A. Response to Modernity: a history of the reform movement in Judaism. Wayne state University Press: Detroit. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=E097BTUssM4Cdq=judaismprintsec=frontcove rsource=inhl=enei=u-cpTL3BFdehsQbXhZmhAgsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=21ved=0CIMBEOgBMBQ#v=onepageqf=false Rich, T. R. (2001). What do Jews believe? Judaism 101. Retrieved from jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Essays Comparing Poems Essays Comparing Poems The students should at least know some examples of the modern poetry, which can be helpful for further education of people. The modern and well-educated person should be aware of different knowledge and in different spheres of persons life. From this point of view, the person should better write essays comparing poems, as in this case not only some poetical views may be taken into account but also students writing skills on this or that topic. The essay comparison is of great help while evaluating the level of this or that essay and students should be aware of it and ready to eradicate the mistakes in the next kind of written task: Essay comparing poems: possible mistakes and challenges! When writing essay comparing poems, the person should understand the main topic of both or several poems under analysis and be sure that the present process will be helpful for them. In other words, the persons working on this task should understand the real nature of this or that topic and be sure to exchange the material and be ready to compare both poems that are important for them. As for the mistakes and challenges in the present process, people should also take into account some of them, such as it is quite difficult to find some of the poems needed for the proper analysis, besides, the teachers can give some difficult poems for analysis and not that easy for understanding by students. Essay comparing poems: are students ready for this task? When the students are given the task to write essays comparing poems, they immediately look on the topic and on the poems under analysis, as this is quite necessary for them in this case and this is the key element of the whole task. The essay comparison may be quite helpful for the process of motivation among students and also for the whole process of writing an essay on this or that topic. A person is free to choose the poems, as in this case the person is free to compare the poems they like and understand most of all, but on the other case there are periods of time when the teacher choose them for students and there is no other choice. Students should not only choose the poems, which are interesting and have the same theme, this facilitates the process of writing and also makes it easier for students to compare the tasks, Besides, the essays comparing poems are difficult to implement if the person does not know at least some information concerning the poetry, so it is advisable while having this task the person should prepare for it properly. Compare poems and refine your poetic taste! The essays comparing poems are quite helpful for people, as in this case they not only provide the proper implementation of the task combined with the poetry and developing the students poetic taste, but also the writing skills of people. Read also: Term Paper on Cholesterol and Lipids Term Paper 15 Pages Non-Plagiarized Term Papers Islamic Religion Term Paper How to Write a Term Paper
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Case Brief - Essay Example The TSAÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming policy required that he shaves off his deadlocks, as a means of conforming to this policy. This was against the appellantÃ¢â¬â¢s religion which made him resist. As a consequent, he was dismissed for apparent violation of the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming policy. This action prompted him to sue the department for employment discrimination based on religion and brought the case under the RFRA. The main point of concern was whether the RFRA applied. The district court then placing the claim under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, stated that it was a violation of this Act, which prohibits employment discrimination based various aspects (Holloway). As a requirement, however, the employee was supposed to have at first exhausted all the administrative avenues as appertains to Title VII before seeking remedy in a new court and hence lacked the subject matter jurisdiction. The courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to affirm the position of the district court was based on the civil rights act in actions against federal law, which specifies that the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s timely exhaustion of the administrative avenues in Title VII. They have no influence on the district court from exercising its mandate. Furthermore, in title VII cases, courts have been granted permission in certain limited situations to proportionally toll filing needs, even under extreme cases like inability to file. Which as a necessity, makes it impossible to characterize such needs as Ã¢â¬Å"jurisdictional.Ã¢â¬ Moreover, the RFRA applies to all aspects of law whether statutory or otherwise taken up before and after the passage of RFRA. However, there are areas that are not affected by the RFRA among, which includes Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which specifies that nothing alters Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on religious-based employment descrimination (McCulloch and Ca stagnera). The court assents
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Shutter Island - Movie Review Example Firstly, director Scorsese intertwines war-induced mental trauma of Teddy Daniels with personal tragedy of Andrew Laeddis. This compounds the confusion for the audience, but also adds a political dimension to what is an exposition on psychiatric illness. Toward the end of the film it is unveiled how the whole of the Shutter Island is a set up to play along the illusions of Andrew Laeddis. So, when we construct the film from backwards, it is obvious that Laeddis is the only Ã¢â¬ËpatientÃ¢â¬â¢ there is. The mysterious disappearance of Rachel Solando is a ploy designed to put Laeddis in situations of acute emotional tension, with the aim of correcting his aberrations. Perhaps, even all the Ã¢â¬ËinmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ of the wards A, B and C were part of the ploy, or perhaps not as mentally ill as is conveyed to Laeddis/Daniels. As the story unfolds, we see how only a porous line separates the dreams and realities of Laeddis. At first, Laeddis, in his persona of Teddy Daniels, is given a warm welcome by the hospital staff and their chief Dr. Cawley. But soon he becomes Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly suspicious of the doctor and his staff, and when he begins experiencing fierce migraines and vivid visions of tragedies in his own past, he begins to fear that he has become CawleyÃ¢â¬â¢s latest experiment.Ã¢â¬ (Thomson, 2010) For nurses and therapists, one of the questions at the center of the film is the debate in the choice of lobotomy and drug therapy. During the 1950s when the film is being set, this was a dominant debating point in psychiatrist circles. Even Dr. John Cawley talks about this debate and his preference for non-interventionist methods. He suggests that he would first try humanitarian methods of talk-therapy, failing which the patient would be tried drug-therapy. It is only as a last resort that surgical procedure would be prescribed. This is a very sensible position to take, for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s psychiatry suffers from ready resort to medication,
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Strategic Management: An Introduction Strategic management is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives. It involves the systematic identification of specifying the firms objectives, nurturing policies and strategies to achieve these objectives, and acquiring and making available these resources to implement the policies and strategies to achieve the firms objectives. Strategic management also integrates the activities of the various functional sectors of a business, such as marketing, sales, production to achieve organizational goals. It is generally the highest level of managerial activity, usually imitated by the board of directors and executive team. Strategic management hopes to provide overall direction to the company has ties to the field of organization studies. Strategic planning is a management tool, period. In short, strategic planning is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it, with a focus on the future. Strategic management also allocates the right amount of resources to the different parts of your business so that those assigned to particular goals have what they need to meet their objectives. This ranges from providing your workers with the right supplies to enacting systems by which employees receive the necessary training, all work processes are tested, and all information and data generated is documented. To effectively manage your business strategically, every inch of your company must have its needs met in these ways. Furthermore, one must know that two businesses cannot be same and there should be some basic differences between them. Because of this, the goals and the plans of action are different for each business. Plus, the strategies for long term and short term development should be different and these need to be applied separately. QUESTION 1: Explain how someone can be a manager but not a leader, a leader but not a manager, and both a manager and a leader. A manager is a person with a job of overseeing one or more employees or department to ensure these employees or departments do their job or assigned duties as required. A manager helps others to get more done by motivating the employees, providing directions , making sure the employees working together towards a common goal, and providing feedback. A new manager may be responsible for a small team or a small project. Usually a senior manager will watch over his or her work. The manager will have to learn the strengths and weaknesses of the team members, instruct a work to the team members, guiding team members to reach goals, provide the tools needed by the team and motivate them to do their task. Usually , a new manager has limited responsibility for money issues and little chances to approve or make an expenditures. They have to review and approve timesheets for their employees and may have the chances to approve expense accounts. The term of manager is not the same for leader since the two terms are not the same. A manager must ensure the appropriate delivery of human resources and funding to meet the routine daily productivity objectives. The manager is known as detailed oriented. Mangers don not see the overall picture and are less interested regarding the long-term corporate goals and mission. They are worried about details; as a result, they do not make them a good leader. Some managers may have certain leadership qualities but they remain too focused on their daily operations and are unable to provide direction and vision to the organization. A manager plans, organizes, leads, and controls whereas a leader influence others through communication, motivation, discipline, direction and dynamics Typically, the goals are set for a beginning manager by someone higher ranking in an organization. Here , the manager have to develop a plan to achieve the goal set. They have to provide feedbacks to their employees as they work with those plans. To be a manager , developing skills at all level is important . At a beginning level , examples of two area where a manager need to focus their skill development are the ability to manage their meetings and developing their own planning tools such as to do a list. A leader is different from manager. A leader is a person who has vision, a drive and a commitment to achieve that vision, and the skills to make it happen. A leader see a problem that needs to be fixed or a goal that needs to be achieved. A leader is also a person who guides others towards a common goal, showing the employees by example and creating an environment in which other team members feel active and involved in any process or task. A leader is a good listener. Leaders have to keep their mind open to others ideas. They can come up with new ways to accomplish the goal set. It is the leaders job to make sure that everyone in the group is being heard. Leaders have to listen to the team members ideas and listen their criticism for improvements. Leaders have to be focus all the time. They have to keep on remind themselves and the team members of the goals and mission. Staying on track and keep the team members on track ,the team will stay motivated and more productive. As leader of the group, it is important that you schedule time to meet with your team to establish and check-in about the goals you hope to achieve. Leaders also have to be organized. Leaders are responsible in a lot of things and might be very busy sometimes. A leader can set the tone for the team. A leader who is organized helps motivate team members to be organized as well. As a leader, youre responsible for a lot and youre probably going to be very busy at times. However, you still need to find time to talk with your team. A good way to do this is to set frequent group meetings, so that no question or concern goes too long without attention. Leaders also have to be decisive. Although an important part of being a leader involves listening to the people surrounding, they have to remember that they are not always going to be able to reach a compromise. When this happens, dont be afraid to make the final decision, even if some team members disagree with the plans. Confident is the most important characteristics of a leader, leaders have to believe themselves and the success of the team members. Show others that you are dedicated, intelligent, and proud of what you are doing. A manager basically directs resources to complete predetermined goals or projects. For example, a manager may engage in hiring, training, and scheduling employees in order to accomplish work in the most efficient and cost effective manner possible. A manager is considered a failure if they are not able to complete the project or goals with efficiency. . On the other hand, a leader within a company develops individuals in order to complete predetermined goals and projects. A leader develops relationships with their employees by building communication, exampling images of success, and by showing loyalty. As an example of a manager, A company CEO directs Wong, one of the companies up and coming managers, to hire enough new employees to provide the company with a customer service department. Wong undertakes his project with enthusiasm. He hires only those employees who can work the assigned hours, will accept the modest pay, and have experience working in customer service. He trains his new employees to perform the job to his expectations and assigns the employees to their new positions. Wong measures his success in terms of efficiency, calls handled per hour, and cost effectiveness, for example did he meet his budget?. However, Wong did not anticipate that of the employees he hired, only a handful would remain working six months later. Moreover, as an example of a leader, Ahmed obtains the same assignment as Wong. Ahmed hires employees that he believes he can develop a working relationship with, versus just those employees who will worked the assigned hours and take the modest pay. Ahmeds goal is to hire a diverse group of employees, some of who do not have any customer service experience, who he feels he can develop a personal connection. A large part of Ahmeds training involves team building, telling successful stories, and listening to each employees own desires for what constitutes a fulfilling job. Ahmed still assigns his employees their job duties and schedules at the end of training, and he also measures success in terms of efficient and cost effectiveness, but he also measures success in terms of low employee turnover, employee morale, and employee development. Ahmed feels proud when one of his employees obtains an advance level position a year or two after being hired. The skills to be a leader or a manager are not exclusive in nature. A leader who only displays leadership skills will be ineffective when it comes to checking time cards, completing employee reviews, and scheduling employee vacation time; things that employers require their managers to do on timely bases. Similarly, a manager who spends all his/her time completing paperwork and reading reports; only creates more problems for him or her because they lack a developing relationship with their employees. Many companies, one person may play the role of both leader and manager. In others, these roles are carried out by different people. And in many cases, the roles overlap and leaders need to manage and managers need to lead. However, it is critical that both roles are performed effectively for a company to succeed, especially a company with employees. Without a vision for the future, a company has no direction and no goals for which to strive. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. As a manager who would like to become a better leader to inspire your employees into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. Leaders an d managers also have much different conceptions of work itself. Leaders develop new approaches to long-standing problems. Leaders work in high-risk positions because of a strong aversion to mundane work. Conversely, managers view work as an enabling process. Managers tolerate practical, mundane work because of a strong survival instinct that makes them risk-averse. They are good at reaching compromises and mediating conflicts between opposing perspectives, but lack the influence to avoid future conflicts. QUESTION 2: Identify two very different organizations that compete on a cost leadership strategy and explain how they do this, i.e. find out what they do that enables them to keep their prices low. The cost leadership strategic is to gain a competitive advantage. Make it into a simple word, cost leadership is reduce the cost to fight with their competitor in same industry. The organization who need to earn more profit, must reduce the cost to ensure they are not waste any resource. The cost who has reduce more, the company will gain more profit and easy to survive in the market share. Anakku Anakku as famous is selling the baby product. The company is celebrated 38th anniversary in Malaysia in 2011. Therefore, the company has their advantage to survive in this market. Anakku produce the baby products get it the mission is built on a strong, solid foundation of premium quality, safety and reliability. The product have been sell by Anakku are fashion-wear for babies and toddlers, feeding equipment, toiletries, diapers, accessories, strollers, playpens and more. Baby Kiko Creating style glamour, fun comfort for the little ones. Is the brand name of Baby Kiko. Baby Kiko is a brand extention from KIKO. Baby Kiko is establishing in Malaysia for over 20 years. Baby Kiko is one of the most widely recognized baby brand in Malaysia, known for quality, trendy style, and marketing creativity. The product that have been sell are toddler clothing, feeding accessories to weaning products, baby cleansing to baby skincare products. Cost Leadership Strategic Both companies have completed their cost leadership strategic, therefore, both company can survive in the market taking a long period time. Each of them has the plan to reduce the cost and increase their profit. Not even thought, both companies also using the Michael Portal 5 force to operate the companies. And they no using too much of advertising to promote their product, so that, the cost will follow decrease. Next, most of the products like cloth or accessories are make by them. The pattern and the design had been created, so, the companies will produce it with their own manufactory. Follow by this, both companies will try to reduce the damage of the product. They will make sure the product is good. The after-sales service is one of the parts they can do, and get the feedback from the customers, and get to improve better to the customers need. Within the Michael Portal 5 forces, First of all, the bargaining power of supplier. For the Baby Kiko Company, all the product are make by own, so that, the raw material of they used is direct from the manufactory, so the price of the product can easy to under control. An opposite, about the Anakku Company, some if the products like car seat or toys are manufacture from the supplies. Mostly, the Anakku Company will control by the supplier. But, for the Anakku Company, the main product for sell is clothing and the accessories like bottles, teethers, feeding accessories and etc. If the supplies increase the price, so they will change the supplier to get the raw material and try to product good product for their customers. Next, the bargaining power of customer or buyer is one of the forces that both companies used. The price had been set and the customers no have too much or no have power to argue to reduce the price. The entire product had been fix price, unless the company does the promotion like discount, so the customer will get the lower price of the product. Both companies have provided onsite service and after-sale service. And some of the product will give about 1 week to 1 year of warranty depend on the product. The threats of the entry of new competitor will also influence the cost. If got new competitor join into this industry, the company will spend more money to do promotion as like discount or adverting to attract people. This kind of money will increase the cost, so the profit will been decrease. Otherwise, both company had been survive in Malaysia taking a long period time, they have their own popularity in this country. For the Anakku Company, they mostly are produce the safety and useful product. The product no easy to damage and some of the product have the warranty to attract the customer to buy it. This is the advantage for them and no need scare about the new competitor to try to attack them. Besides that, the Baby Kiko Company more is based on the creative and innovative product to attract customers. The design and the fashion are new and look nicely. Based on the customers, they will take feedback and get the new the information to produce the product. Those are the advantage of the both companies; the new competitor does not have too much power and cost to survive. Other than that, the intensity of competitor rivalry it may also influence the cost. Take a basic word, who can get the lower cost, who will win in the market. Therefore, the company must have the power and the capacity to run the business. For Anakku Company, they have many branches in the Malaysia. It will easy to target market and the customers. Anakku Company as a wholesaler otherwise as a retailer. They retail the product directly to the customer, so that, the cost will not be too high to be taken. The technology of Anakku Company use is high-tech machine. According the above statement, the Anakku Company does not have too much of advertising. Running the business around 30 years, the popularity has the value on their customers. For Baby Kiko, they usually are wholesale to the stores that are really preferred to sales. Some hypermarket like Partson or The Store, we can see Baby Kiko product. Wholesale to other store, it can deduct the cost of employee and no need searching the place to run over the business. The customers who are prefer to sell the product, they will delivery it. It may reduce the cost with it. Not even that, Baby Kiko Company also though the internet to promote the product. One of the major website is Facebook to promote. It is free of charge and also can attract more people to know the new product. Other than that, the labour force it may influence the cost available. Anakku Company is more focus on the retail sale, so that, the employee will taking more and more, so the cost relative will increase. From the manufactory to the store, they are too many employees to work. But, the Baby Kiko no taking too much of employee, because they have using the technology like machine or wholesale to other seller. The cost taking is the transportation fee. At last, which companies keep the lower cost; it may easy and expand the business. Besides that, properly using the raw material and do not simply waste too much. Because the waste will direct influence the cost. Have a good plan of cost leadership, the company more easy to survive in the market share. Nursing Case Study: Osteoarthritis (OA) Management Nursing Case Study: Osteoarthritis (OA) Management Introduction Over 60% of adults in England suffer from a chronic health problem (Department of Health 2004). Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most common chronic conditions, particularly among older adults, and is a cause of considerable pain and disability among affected individuals. The prevalence of OA has been estimated at 2.5% in the overall population, increasing to 12% among those aged 65 years and over (Wood 1999). OA is a complex condition with multiple risk factors of age, sex, overweight or obesity, genetics, and biomechanical factors (e.g. joint injury or occupational or recreational use). It is possible for OA to develop in any synovial joint but the spine, hip, knee, hands most commonly affected, either in isolation or in combination (Steven and Finlayson 2005). Typical symptoms of OA include joint pain, stiffness, limited movement, crepitus and swelling, and symptoms may be static, relapsing or progressive (Steven and Finlayson 2005). Structural changes within the joint may also oc cur in the absence of any symptoms. OA places a considerable burden on healthcare resources, with data published in 2002 showing this condition to be responsible for over 11 million GP visits and more than 114,500 hospital admissions (Arthritis Research campaign 2002). OA also impacts significantly on the economy. In 1999Ã¢â¬â2000, it was estimated that a total of 36 million working days were lost due to OA alone, resulting in Ã £3.2 billion in lost productivity (Arthritis Research campaign 2002). It is therefore important that OA is managed effectively in affected individuals. This paper discusses a patient that I have nursed with osteoarthritis and examines the effectiveness of their care in the management of this condition. Patient case history Mrs Smith is aged 78 years and lives independently in a two-storey house with her husband, aged 82 years, who is her main carer. She has osteoarthritis of the knees, hips and hands and also has hypertension and diabetes. She is taking four medications for these conditions. Eighteen months ago, she underwent emergency hospital admission for a urine infection. After being discharged from hospital, assessment showed her to be at an increased risk of repeated admissions due to her multiple pathology, polypharmacy and previous hospital admission. The care she had received prior to hospital admission was below standard and self-management of her condition was poor. Her GP referred her case management to a community matron who worked alongside a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals (I was a member of this team) and her husband to co-ordinate her care and help Mrs Smith reduce her risk of future hospital admissions. The community matron was involved in Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s progra mme of care for a total of two months, after which time co-ordination of her care was handed back to her GP. At the initial assessment, Mrs Smith was found to be experiencing high levels of pain which affected her sleep patterns and showed symptoms of depression. She also reported relationship problems. At present, her pain is being managed effectively through a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions which include self-management; she reports normal sleeping patterns and shows no signs of depression. Her relationship with her husband has also improved and Mrs Smith is now no longer at increased risk of future hospital admissions. Managing individuals with chronic conditions The care and management of chronic conditions should address individual needs and expectations. The government has set Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets for improving outcomes for people with chronic conditions. These include reducing emergency bed days by 5% and increasing the number of older adults who are supported to live at home by 1% by 2008, from the 2003/4 baseline (Department of Health 2005). With the aim of meeting these targets, the NHS and Social Care Model was developed to help Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and social care organisations improve care for individuals with chronic conditions (Department and Health 2005). From 2005, all PCTs are required to provide personalised care plans for those individuals who are most at risk. Initiatives such as the Expert Patient Programme are included in this model and will be discussed later. Providing high-quality care for older adults The NHS Plan set out a programme of reforms for the NHS (Department of Health 2000). Based on the underpinning principles of this plan, the National Service Framework for Older People was implemented to ensure that the needs of older adults are adequately addressed in these reforms (Department of Health 2001). This will be achieved by ensuring high standards of care are provided for all patients, improving access to care, and developing services which promote independence. The Essence of Care, published in 2001, sets out benchmarks for clinical governance covering eight areas of care which identify required standards for high-quality care and indicators for best practice (NHS Modernisation Agency 2003). NHS reforms have led to changes in the role of nurses, providing new opportunities for nurses to extend their existing roles, together with the introduction of new roles such as the community matron in the community setting and modern matrons in the hospital setting (Department of Health 2001). [Client: since we donÃ¢â¬â¢t discuss care in the hospital setting elsewhere, I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t discussed the role of the modern matron any further] This paper will examine the role of the nurse as part of a multidisciplinary care team in the care of Mrs Smith. Care and management of osteoarthritis in older adults The management of OA in adults becomes increasingly complex with advancing age (Holman and Lorig 1997). Since there is no cure for OA, the main therapeutic goals are to minimise the effects of the disease and over time. Effective care involves building long-term interpersonal relationships between healthcare providers and patients, carers, family members, other care providers, and those organisations involved in providing care and support. A holistic approach to assessment and treatment is required that considers the physiological, psychological and social needs of the individual in relation to their quality of life and daily activities (Salaffi et al. 1991). Both the National Institute of Clinical Excellence and the Royal College of Physicians have recently published guidelines for the care and management of osteoarthritis in adults (National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions 2008; NICE 2008). The care of Mrs Smith will be discussed in the context of the recommendations ma de in these guidelines. Assessment The single assessment process for older adults was introduced in 2000 as part of the NHS Plan (Department of Health 2000). This requires an assessment of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health and social care needs to take place in a single assessment and was designed to standardise the assessment process and raise standards of assessment practice. During Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment, her concerns, expectations and level of knowledge about her condition were discussed, together with the effect that her osteoarthritis had on daily activities including personal hygiene, climbing stairs, getting up from chairs, etc, and on her sleep patterns. Her levels of pain and mood were also assessed. Mr Smith also participated in the assessment, in order to gain his perspective on his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s condition and to establish how well he was coping as her carer, and also to identify any specific health need he might have. Further specialist assessment of Mrs Smith and her ability to undertake daily activi ties, together with an environment assessment, were undertaken by an occupational therapist. Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s level of knowledge about her condition was poor. Three other key issues were also identified during the assessment, namely pain management, depression/anxiety and relationship problems. Mrs Smith reported increasing pain in her joints, particularly her knees and hips prior to her admission to hospital which was so bad she was unable to sleep at night. The care she had been receiving prior to this had not effectively addressed this increasing pain. Screening and assessment showed Mrs Smith was suffering from mild depression. She reported feeling distress that she was no longer able to undertake many household tasks that she used to be able to do or participate in recreational activities with her husband that she used to enjoy. The increasing pain she had been experiencing prior to her hospital admission also contributed to her feelings of depression. She reported feelings of anxiety over fears that she may be made to leave her home as she could no longer manage to c limb the stairs. Mrs Smith showed negative feelings regarding her past care and was initially pessimistic about the likely effectiveness of the proposed treatment in the current care plan. Mrs Smith expressed concern that her relationship with her husband was suffering because her pain and lack of sleep made her irritable and short tempered. An additional factor compounding these problems was her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s poor hearing which served to make her more irritable. All of these issues are common among adults suffering from OA (Farmer et al. 2008), and is important that their care plans effectively address these needs. The nurse plays a pivotal role in the assessment of individuals with chronic conditions and it is important for the nurse to establish a successful therapeutic relationship with the patient and their carer(s) as early as possible in the process. Effective communication and building trust is central to this relationship and it is necessary to gain the perspective of both the patient and carer to develop a thorough understanding of individual needs. Development and implementation of a personalised care plan Empowering patients to take part in decisions regarding their care is central to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s health service policy agenda (Department of Health 2000). The empowerment of older adults is also addressed in the NSF for Older People (Department of Health 2001). Research suggests that patient empowerment may help to strengthen patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to self-manage their condition (Corben and Rosen 2005). It is also beneficial to involve families and carers in the decision-making process, with the consent of the patient. A personalised care plan was developed for Mrs Smith with the involvement of both her and her husband, which was tailored to meet her individual goals. This plan enabled high-quality, patient-centred care to be delivered via a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals which included her GP, nurse, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and community matron. Social services were also involved in providing additional support for both members of the co uple. Taking account of Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s multiple pathology and polypharmacy and the use of research-based evidence were both of major importance when developing this care plan. Interventions within the care plan and the individual roles of healthcare providers Non-pharmacological interventions The provision of education and advice and muscle strengthening exercises were the two core interventions in Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s care programme. Research has shown that patients frequently report better outcomes when they receive education and advice as this empowers them to become more involved in their own care and equips them with the knowledge and skills required for self-management (Holman and Lorig 1997). Educating both Mrs Smith and her husband about her condition and methods of self-management formed a key component of her care plan and discussions were primarily nurse-led. Encouraging self-management is essential for all chronic conditions and providing a framework for self-management is an integral aspect of care (National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions 2008). The Expert Patients Programme (EPP) was introduced in 2003 following the success of the Stanford Self-management Programme in the United States (Department of Health 2006). Research which provides the rationale for this programme suggests that patients who have trained in self-management have greater confidence and use their skills and knowledge to improve their overall quality of life. These individuals subsequently require fewer healthcare resources, leading to long-term cost savings. Self-management courses are run trained by lay leaders rather than healthcare professionals. To date, the success of EPP in the UK has been limited compared with that of other rehabilitation programmes for chronic conditions (Bethell et al. 2007). A physiotherapist taught Mrs Smith to perform a series of gentle exercises to strengthen the supporting muscles around her knee which she was then able to perform on a daily basis by herself at home. An occupational therapist recommended a number of modifications to Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s home to make performing daily tasks easier. These included the installation of a raised toilet seat and wall bars in the bathroom. The occupational therapist also arranged the provision of shock- absorbing shoes to help reduce the pain in Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s knees and hips. Due to Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s limited mobility, opportunities for visits outside the home were restricted. However, social services arranged for both members of the couple to attend weekly bingo sessions at their local community centre which provided the opportunity for social interaction with other older adults which both members of the couple found beneficial. Pharmacological interventions Oral paracetamol and the use of topical NSAIDs for the knee were prescribed for Mrs Smith. Paracetamol and topical use of NSAIDs are the currently recommended first-line treatments for knee OA (NICE 2008). Paracetamol alone was not sufficient to control Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s high levels of pain in her knees. Since her antihypertensive medication was a calcium channel blocker, the use of NSAIDs were not thought to be contra-indicated and were unlikely to show drug interaction with her other medications (Luque et al. 2006). Following discussions with Mrs Smith, a decision was taken not to prescribe anti-depressants initially but to monitor her symptoms of depression and revise her care plan if necessary. Throughout Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s programme of care, the role of the nurse involved making regular home visits to assess Mrs Smith and her husband. Monitoring the effectiveness of the interventions implemented is essential if the goals identified within the care plan are to be achieved. Regular reviews of the care plan should be made and changes made as required based on the outcome of ongoing assessments. Prior to the involvement of the community matron, Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s GP practice was responsible for co-ordinating her care. The community matron is a relatively new clinical specialist position within the NHS, introduced specifically to provide support for people with long-term complex conditions (Department of Health 2004). Working alongside GPs, community matrons perform various roles which enable patientÃ¢â¬â¢s need to be met within the community rather than in hospital (Bassett 2005). The role of the community matron in this instance was in short-term case management. Addressing the carerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs Evidence suggests that the health needs of carers are frequently overlooked (Hare 2004). It is also important that carers receive adequate support as feelings of isolation and being unable to cope are common (Department of Health 2004b). Mr SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s health needs were assessed during the initial assessment and addressed accordingly. Mr Smith suffered from angina for which he was already taking medication, and poor hearing. A follow-up specialist assessment of his hearing identified the need for a hearing aid which he received. The health of both patient and carer was then assessed by the nurse during subsequent home visits. Success of the care programme Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s care programme had a successful outcome. Her symptoms of depression reduced and her relationship improved once her pain was being managed more effectively and she was able to sleep better. Her mobility improved and confidence increased such that she was able to start taking short walks outside her home with her husband. She was also able to undertake more tasks within the home. Education about her condition led her to realise that OA is Ã¢â¬Ënot the end of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢ and that life can still be enjoyable, provided her condition continues to managed effectively. Mr Smith also received support from the healthcare team which helped to re-enforce his role as her main carer and extend his knowledge about his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, which better equipped him to care for her effectively. Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s care was delivered using the appropriate frameworks for older adults and those with chronic conditions and was in line with current management guidelines. Osteoarthritis and ageing OA is more common among older adults and will therefore frequently co-exist with other age-related comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension, as demonstrated in the case of Mrs Smith. Because of this multiple pathology, polypharmacy is common and drug regimens are often complex (Gorard 2006). Polypharmacy may increase the risk of drug-drug interactions and drug-related adverse events. In some cases, drug-drug interactions may counteract the effect of a particular drug (Cotter and Martin 2007). For example, if beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor antihypertensives are co-administered with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), the hypotensive effect of these drugs may be reduced due to sodium retention by the NSAID (Luque et al. 2006). Furthermore, older adults may also consume over-the-counter preparations (e.g. vitamins and analgesics) which also have the potential to interact with prescription drugs. Age-related changes in both drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may be observed, and increased drug sensitivity may increase the risk of drug accumulation and toxicity in older adults (McGavock 2006). Other factors which should also be considered when prescribing drugs for older adults are (1) cognition Ã¢â¬â whether the patient is able to understand and follow their treatment regimen; (2) vision visual impairment may prevent them from being able to identify their tablets correctly; (2) ability to swallow or fear of swallowing Ã¢â¬â some patients may be unable to swallow large tablets or may be afraid to do so for fear of choking. It is therefore very important to ensure that a full drug history is taken for every patient and other relevant factors are also taken into account. Ethical and legal issues in the management of chronic illness NHS funding for individuals with chronic illness has been the subject of considerable controversy in recent years. Advances in medical technology have allowed healthcare providers to considerably prolong the life of many individuals with chronic conditions and this ability, coupled with the increasingly ageing population, have presented an unsolved dilemma of how to provide comprehensive care with limited resources (Waldron 2006). Until recently, some patients have been caught up in a so-called Ã¢â¬Ëpostcode lotteryÃ¢â¬â¢ whereby drugs and services may be available to individuals living in one region of the UK, but not another. This is considered by many to be against the founding principles of the NHS which was introduced with the vision of providing free medical care for all (Donnelly 2008). While it must be acknowledged that at the time of its conception sixty years ago, no one could have predicted the extent of future increases in population size within the UK, or the shift t owards an increasingly ageing population which have placed an ever increasing burden on services ill-equipped to meet demand. Nonetheless, regardless of the extent of available resources, these should be distributed fairly to all within the population regardless of location or any other factors. Living wills are an issue which may concern individuals with chronic conditions, particularly those receiving end of life care. There may be circumstances in which some individuals may not wish to receive life-prolonging treatment and it is important that decisions and choices regarding their care can be communicated to care providers if they themselves are unable to do so. Allowing individuals to refuse life-prolonging treatment may be viewed by some as a step towards euthanasia which considers the right of an individual to choose when and how to die and which has been the subject of intense debate for a number of years. The NSF for Older People (Department of Health 2001) addresses some of the ethical issues surrounding the care of older adults, in particular infringement of their dignity and unfair discrimination in access to care. This framework includes standards for (1) reducing age discrimination, ensuring that NHS services are provided on the basis of clinical need and that social services do not use age as a barrier to restrict access to services; and (2) treating older adults as individuals and allowing them to become involved in decisions regarding their care (i.e. promoting patient empowerment, as discussed previously). The Evercare programme also addresses the right of older adults to receive high-quality patient-centred care. This programme was introduced in the UK in 2003 after demonstrating success in the United States. It is designed to improve care for older adults who frequently have multiple pathologies and social problems, who may be receiving poor care, and who are often admitted to hospital as emergency admissions for reasons that may have been preventable with higher standards of care. Those patients at highest risk of future hospital admission are identified for enrollment in the programme. A role of the community matron would be in identification of those individuals who may be benefit from this programme and in their case management. The principles of the programme include the provision of personalised, holistic care aimed at promoting independence, comfort and improved quality of life, and avoiding adverse effects of polypharmacy. Conclusions The management of chronic conditions such as OA presents a greater challenge in older adults with multiple pathologies, where successful outcomes may be dependent on a number of co-morbidities. The need for a full understanding of drug-drug interactions and age-related physiological changes is essential for accurate drug prescribing in this group of patients where polypharmacy is common. Effective management of Mrs SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s condition was achieved through a combination of self-management and health and social care. Effective care involved a holistic approach to assessment and treatment from a multidisciplinary team of health and social care providers. Within this team, nurses played a pivotal role in the community setting (and were also involved in providing care in hospital setting during her hospital admission). There are a number of ethical and legal issues surrounding the care and management of chronic conditions, particularly in older adults where age discrimination and infringement of dignity have been highlighted as widespread problems. Initiatives such as the Evercare programme have been implemented to address these issues but their success has yet to be demonstrated on a national level. Bibliography Arthritis Research Campaign 2002, Arthritis: the big picture. Arthritis Research Campaign, London. Bassett, S. 2005, Community Matrons: Improving the care of patients with long term conditions, Modernisation Agency. Bethell, H. J. N., Evans, J. A., Turner, S. C., Lewin, R. J. P. 2007, Ã¢â¬ËThe rise and fall of cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom since 1998Ã¢â¬â¢, Journal of Public Health, vol. 29, pp. 57Ã¢â¬â61. Corben, S. Rosen, R 2005, Self-management of long-term conditions: patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives on the way ahead, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, London. Cotter, L. E. Martin, U. 2007, Student British Medical Journal, vol. 15, pp. 337Ã¢â¬â82. Department of Health 2000, The NHS Plan: a plan for investment, a plan for reform. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4002960 Department of Health 2001, National Service Framework for Older People. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4003066 Department of Health 2001, Implementing the NHS Plan Ã¢â¬â modern matrons: strengthening the role of ward sisters and introducing senior sisters. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Lettersandcirculars/Healthservicecirculars/DH_4004789 Department of Health 2004, Chronic disease management: a compendium of information. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_062820 Department of Health 2004, The NHS Improvement Plan: putting people at the heart of public services. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4084476 Department of Health 2005, Supporting people with long term conditions. An NHS and social care model to support local innovation and integration. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4100252 Department of Health 2006, The Expert Patient PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Programme. Retrieved 25th July from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Aboutus/MinistersandDepartmentLeaders/ChiefMedicalOfficer/ProgressOnPolicy/ProgressBrowsableDocument/DH_4102757 Donnelly, L. 2008, NHS at 60: a vision which we still believe. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2171506/NHS-at-60-A-vision-in-which-we-still-believe.html Farmer, A., Korszum, A., Owen, M. J., Craddock, N., Jones, L., Jones, I., Gray, J., Williamson, R. J., McGuffin, P. 2008, Ã¢â¬ËMedical disorders in people with recurrent depressionÃ¢â¬â¢, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 192, pp. 351Ã¢â¬â5. Gorard, D. A. 2006, Ã¢â¬ËEscalating polypharmacyÃ¢â¬â¢, Q J Med, vol. 99, pp. 797Ã¢â¬â800. Holman, H. Lorig, K 1997, Ã¢â¬ËOvercoming barriers to successful aging: self management of osteoarthritisÃ¢â¬â¢, Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 265Ã¢â¬â8. Luque, M., Navarro, A., Martell, N. 2006, Ã¢â¬ËUse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs does not modify the antihypertensive effect of lercanidipine in essential hypertensionÃ¢â¬â¢, British Journal of Cardiology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 353Ã¢â¬â9. McGavock, H. 2002, Ã¢â¬ËThe scientific basis of prescribing in the elderlyÃ¢â¬â¢, Prescriber, pp. 86Ã¢â¬â9. NHS Modernisation Agency 2003, Essence of care. Patient-focused benchmarks for clinical governance. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4005475 National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions 2008, Ã¢â¬ËOsteoarthritis: national clinical guideline for care and management in adultsÃ¢â¬â¢, Royal College of Physicians, London. NICE 2008, Osteoarthritis. The care and management of osteoarthritis in adults. Retrieved 25th July 2008 from: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG59NICEguideline.pdf Salaffi F, Cavalieri F, Nolli M. 1991, Ã¢â¬ËAnalysis of disability in knee osteoarthritis. Relationship with age and psychological variables but not with radiographic scoreÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1581Ã¢â¬â6. Steven, M. M. Finlayson, D. 2005, Ã¢â¬ËManagement of osteoarthritisÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, vol. 35, pp. 246Ã¢â¬â9. Waldron, N. 2006, Ã¢â¬ËFunding decisions in chronically sick individualsÃ¢â¬â¢, British Journal of Nursing, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 286Ã¢â¬â91. Wood, J. 1999, Ã¢â¬ËOsteoarthritis and its managementÃ¢â¬â¢, The Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 262, no. 7046, pp. 744Ã¢â¬â6.
Friday, January 17, 2020
A sample is a subset or portion of a population. Sample should represent the population with fewer but sufficient number of items. One Population can have several samples with different sizes. A small portion or part taken from something whether it's a particular race, inhabitants, data, or items to show or to be the representative of the whole. Its significance to statistics are fairly similar to its original meaning. It is a slice of all of its characteristics. In researching and gatherings info it would be costly and very impractical to work on the whole rather than just a sampling of the whole. A New York newspaper reported the average gasoline prices in four metropolitan areas and used a bar chart to illustrate the differences. What type of statistics was shown? What activities did the newspaper use to make the report? I believed that descriptive statistics are shown in this example. This is used to describe basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries ab out the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.The statistics shown in this example were collecting data, margining the data, and presenting the data. This helps us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way by reducing large amounts of data. This is important to allow your data to be understood in a short period of time. 3. Research a management or marketing article/news/publication that writes about a topic founded on the use of statistics. Evaluate the information according to the following questions and directions. Determine whether the existing information is adequate or additional information is required to support the topic.In the article that I found the information is adequate and no additional Is the presentation of statistics misleading in the context of the topic? The article was to the point and the context was not misleading to the topic. Was statistics used only as numerical information or the framework for decision-making? The statistics were more of the frame work for decision making. By giving all the statistical data on preparing and strategy plan. Allowing the ability to utilize the statistical data. Ramekin, introduced to articulate discussions of sense-making, knowledge management and organizational learning, has much to offer discussion of statistical inference and decision analysis. I explore its value, particularly in its ability to help recognize which analytic and modeling methodologies are most likely to offer appropriate support in a given context. The framework also offers a further perspective on the relationship between scenario thinking and decision analysis in supporting decision makers. Was the information summarized in a useful and informative manner?The information was summarized in a useful and informative manner. It was well placed and gave more than enough information on the subject. We show that social scientists ofte n do not take full advantage of the information available in their statistical results and thus missed opportunities to present quantities that could shed the greatest light on their research questions. In this article we suggest an approach, built on the technique of statistical simulation, to extract the currently overlooked information and present it in a reader-friendly manner.More specifically, we show how to convert the raw results of any statistical procedure into expressions that conveys numerically precise estimates of the quantities of greatest substantive interest, and include reasonable measures of uncertainty about those estimates, and squired little specialized knowledge to understand. Analyze and draw your own observations/inferences/conclusions about the information presented based on information you have learned from this module. The statistical technique uses outlined below are very powerful analysis tools but they require a good statistical sample to be effective. These analysis techniques are not generally attempted on data sets with less than 20 wells. Statistically based water saturations give an interpretation of the apparent fluid content of a formation independent of Raw, Ã¢â¬Ëm' and volume of shale. An apparent total water saturation is derived as well as an apparent irreducible water saturation. This is a very powerful analysis tool but requires a good statistical sample of both wet and hydrocarbon bearing intervals to be most successful. This analysis is not generally attempted on data sets with less than 20 wells.PART II: CASE STUDY The topic that best catches my interest is E-Business and Wealth. Business conducted online is steadily growing as more companies are creating an online presence, while many new companies are popping up fully online. These e-businesses, like all business, must decide the best ways to generate wealth and value within their given parameters, namely the Internet, as opposed to physical dealings. And can i nvolve the ways that e-businesses generate wealth and value and how those ways differ from traditional businesses before the Internet boom.It can suggest whether or not e- businesses have any advantages or disadvantages and then suggest whether or not businesses without an Internet presence should make one. Surveying both large and small businesses from around the world will help this thesis earner an international, well-rounded perspective. Descriptive statistics aim to describe the prominent features within a collection of data quantitatively. It summarizes a collection of data as a description rather than using the data to learn about the field in which the data represents.Generally, descriptive statistics are always used, even when the main conclusions from the data's analysis are gained by use of inferential statistics. Inferential statistics is the given title of a process of gaining knowledge from a set of data that are subject to random change or variation. Such data sets wo uld render a descriptive statistic meaningless as the data changes in an unpredictable way. Therefore no knowledge would be gained about the subject that the data represents. The outcome to such a statistical method may be a prediction that can then be used to ensure practical action to be taken.I never before had really thought about statistics and really didn't know how important it was for businesses. Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics that collects and organizes data to interpret and predict future behavior or results. Almost every business uses statistics, including insurance, consumer products, retail, heuristically and even the federal government. Statistics are important for a number of reasons and can be used for various purposes. Research can be used to make decisions for marketing or financial allocations or deciding whether to consolidate or close the business.Gathering and analyzing the data to reach concrete conclusions about the current and future condition s that your business will face is paramount. Critical decisions need to be based on research because of the impact these decisions have on other people and other businesses. The government uses statistics to measure ongoing economic indicators that greatly affect business and industry. Companies can use statistics to measure market share and market potential, the percent of the market they hold in dollars, and the total amount of dollars and units sold in their industries.Statistics are a core component of marketing research techniques. Companies use marketing research agencies to conduct quantitative research with consumers to evaluate new and existing products. Statistics help companies develop sales forecasts one, two and even five years into the future. Companies can then modify or improve their products, ire additional sales reps and put the necessary resources in place to meet these targets. Sales forecasting statistics are also a useful tool in business and marketing plan dev elopment.Statistics help companies develop sales forecasts one, two and even five years into the future. Companies can then modify or improve their products, hire additional sales reps and put the necessary resources in place to meet these targets. Most all Of mankind's endeavors have a random factor. Statistics is a way of putting numbers to that randomness. Business and research statistics is relevant to most areas of he business world. Statistics is important to business analysis in the fields of manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, retail and in many others.Statistics can point out relationships. A careful review of data can reveal links between two variables, such as specific sales offers and changes in revenue or dissatisfied customers and products purchased. Statistics provide the means to measure and control production processes to minimize variations, which lead to error or waste, and ensure consistency throughout the process. This saves money by reducing the materi als used to make or remake reduces, as well as materials lost to overage and scrap, plus the cost of honoring warranties due to shipping defective products.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Perl has a handy built-in function for finding the current date and time in your scripts. However, when we talk about finding the time, were talking about the time that is currently set on the machine thats running the script. For instance, if youre running your Perl script on your local machine, localtime will return the current time you have set, and presumably set to your current timezone. When you run the same script on a web server, you may find that Ã¢â¬â¹localtime there is off from Ã¢â¬â¹localtime on your desktop system. The server might be in a different time zone or be set incorrectly. Each machine may have a totally different idea of what localtime is and it may take some adjusting, either within the script or on the server itself, to get it to match up to what youre expecting. The localtime function returns a list full of data about the current time, some of which will need to be adjusted. Run the program below and youll see each element in the list printed on the line and separated by spaces. #!/usr/local/bin/perltimeData localtime(time);print join( , timeData); You should see something similar to this, although the number could be very different. 20 36 8 27 11 105 2 360 0 These elements of the current time are, in order: Seconds past the minuteMinutes past the hourHours past midnightDay of the monthMonths past the start of the yearNumber of years since 1900Number of days since the start of the week (Sunday)Number of days since the start of the yearWhether or not daylight savings is active So if we return to the example and attempt to read it, youll see that its 8:36:20 AM on December the 27th, 2005, its 2 days past Sunday (Tuesday), and its 360 days since the start of the year. Daylight savings time is not active. Making the Perl Localtime Readable A few of the elements in the array thatÃ localtimeÃ returns are a bit awkward to read. Who would think of the current year in terms of the number of years past 1900?Ã LetsÃ take a look at an example that makes our date and time clearer. #!/usr/local/bin/perl months qw(Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec); weekDays qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); ($second, $minute, $hour, $dayOfMonth, $month, $yearOffset, $dayOfWeek, $dayOfYear, $daylightSavings) localtime(); $year 1900 $yearOffset; $theTime $hour:$minute:$second, $weekDays[$dayOfWeek] $months[$month] $dayOfMonth, $year; print $theTime; When you run the program, you should see a much more readable date and time like this: 9:14:42, Wed Dec 28, 2005 So what did we do to create this more readable version?Ã First,Ã we prepare twoÃ arraysÃ with the names of the months and days of the week. months qw(Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec); weekDays qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); Since theÃ localtimeÃ function returns these elements in values ranging from 0-11 and 0-6 respectively, they are perfect candidates for an array. The value returned byÃ localtimeÃ can be used as aÃ numeric addressÃ to access the correct element in the array. $months[$month] $weekDays[$dayOfWeek] The next step is to get all the values from theÃ localtimeÃ function. In this example, were using a Perl shortcut to automatically place each element in theÃ localtimeÃ array into its own variable. Weve chosen names so that its easy to remember which element is which. ($second, $minute, $hour, $dayOfMonth, $month, $yearOffset, $dayOfWeek, $dayOfYear, $daylightSavings) localtime(); We also need to adjust the value of the year. Remember thatÃ localtimeÃ returns the number of years since 1900, so in order to find the current year, well need to add 1900 to the value were given. $year 1900 $yearOffset; How to Tell the Current GM Time in Perl Lets say that you want to avoid all possible time zone confusions and take control of the offset yourself. Getting the current time inÃ localtimeÃ will always return a value that is based on the machines timezone settings - a server in the US will return one time, while a server in Australia will return one nearly a full day different due to the time zone differences. Perl has a second handy time-tellingÃ functionÃ that works in exactly the same way asÃ localtime, but instead of returning the time fixed forÃ your machines time zone, it returns Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, also called Greenwich Mean Time or GMT). Simply enough the function is calledÃ gmtime. #!/usr/local/bin/perl timeData gmtime(time); print join( , timeData); Other than the fact the time returned will be the same on every machine and in GMT, there is no difference between theÃ gmtimeÃ andÃ localtimeÃ functions. All the data and conversions are done in the same way. #!/usr/local/bin/perl months qw(Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec); weekDays qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); ($second, $minute, $hour, $dayOfMonth, $month, $yearOffset, $dayOfWeek, $dayOfYear, $daylightSavings) gmtime(); $year 1900 $yearOffset; $theGMTime $hour:$minute:$second, $weekDays[$dayOfWeek] $months[$month] $dayOfMonth, $year; print $theGMTime; localtimeÃ will return the current local time on the machine that runs the script.gmtimeÃ will return the universal Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT (or UTC).The return values may not be quite what you expect, so make sure you convert them as necessary.